Caffeine: Pros and Cons by Marianne Leffert

What is caffeine and where does it come from? Caffeine is a natural stimulating chemical found in familiar products like soda, tea, energy drinks, and coffee. Caffeine is naturally found in about 60 plant types such as cocoa beans, kola nuts, and tea leaves. It works when entering our central nervous system, usually taken orally in a drink or pill form.  As early as 10 minutes after ingesting caffeine you will start feeling the side effects. At about 45 minutes after ingesting caffeine we will get about 99% of the full effects lasting anywhere from 4-8 hours.

Because caffeine is a stimulant some possible side effects include: elevated heart rate, insomnia, nervousness, restlessness or jittery feeling, irritable bowels, nausea or vomiting, increased respirations, and elevated blood pressure. If caffeine is taken in larger doses (i.e. 6 or more cups of coffee per day) can cause anxiety, chest pain and headaches, even cause irregular heartbeats.

With all these side effects, why are there so many products produced containing caffeine? When taken in moderation, (i.e. 2-3 cups of coffee a day) there are many temporary benefits of caffeine that have been found. Such as being more alert and having a better ability to concentrate.  This is especially true with those who have chronic fatigue or sleep deprivation. It can also alleviate headaches or tension migraines.  When consumed in moderation, it has also been proven to reduce the risk of diabetes and lowering our hemoglobin A1c. Coffee consumption may aid in those who have constipation, although this has been mixed results. Caffeine has even proven to reduce the risk in certain cancers such as throat or liver cancer and even prostate cancer. It has even been known to help in aiding those who are asthmatic with airway function for up to 4 hours.

Many athletes will promote energy drinks because it is proven to enhance athletic performance on such a wide spectrum. It has proven to increase strength and power output, high intensity cardio and aerobic exercise. It can increase our bodies responsiveness to testosterone and adrenaline.

Here are some recommended caffeine dosages from WebMd:

  • For headache or improving mental alertness: 250 mg per day.

  • For tiredness: 150-600 mg.

  • For improving athletic performance: 2-10 mg/kg or more has been used. However, doses in excess of 800 mg per day can result in urine levels greater than the 15 mcg/mL allowed by the National Collegiate Athletic Association.

  • For weight loss: the ephedrine/caffeine combination products are commonly dosed 20 mg/200 mg three times per day.

  • For headache after epidural anesthesia: 300 mg.One cup of brewed coffee provides from 95-200 mg of caffeine. An 8-ounce serving of black tea provides from 40-120 mg of caffeine. An 8-ounce serving of green tea provides 15-60 mg of caffeine. Soft drinks such as cola provide from 20-80 mg of caffeine per 12 ounce serving. Sports or energy drinks typically provide from 48-300 mg of caffeine per serving.


Is caffeine addictive? Since caffeine is a stimulant, daily use can cause a physical dependency. Let us say you have a few cups of coffee every morning, as many people do to jumpstart their day. If you were to abruptly stop having your coffee or any caffeine intake, you may experience some symptoms of withdrawal for a couple of days until your body adjusts back from the physical dependency. Some common side effects are headache, extra fatigue, irritability, and difficulty concentrating. Caffeine dependency is not considered a serious addiction or harmful like street drugs or alcohol.

Sources:

https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-979/caffeine

https://www.webmd.com/diet/caffeine-directory

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/271707.php

The information provided is for general interest only and should not be misconstrued as a diagnosis, prognosis or treatment recommendation. This information does not in any way constitute the practice of medicine, or any other health care profession. Readers are directed to consult their health care provider regarding their specific health situation. Marque Medical is not liable for any action taken by a reader based upon this information.

 

 

 

Dehydration by Your Marque Team

Dehydration is a condition that occurs when the loss of body fluids, mostly water, exceed the amount that is taken in. We lose water every day in the form of water vapor in the breath we exhale and in our excreted sweat, urine, and stool. Along with the water, small amounts of salts are also lost. When we lose too much water, our bodies may become out of balance or dehydrated. Severe dehydration can lead to death.

Many conditions may cause rapid and continued fluid losses and lead to dehydration:

  • Fever, heat exposure, and too much exercise

  • Vomiting, diarrhea, and increased urination due to infection

  • Diseases such as diabetes

  • The inability to seek appropriate water and food (as in the case of a disabled person)

  • An impaired ability to drink (for instance, someone in a coma or on a respirator)

  • No access to safe drinking water

  • Significant injuries to skin, such as burns or mouth sores, or severe skin diseases or infections (water is lost through the damaged skin)


The signs and symptoms of dehydration range from minor to severe and include:

  • Increased thirst

  • Dry mouth and swollen tongue

  • Weakness

  • Dizziness

  • Palpitations (feeling that the heart is jumping or pounding)

  • Confusion

  • Sluggishness fainting

  • Fainting

  • Inability to sweat

  • Decreased urine output


Try to get people who are dehydrated to take in fluids in the following ways:

  • Sipping small amounts of water

  • Drinking carbohydrate/electrolyte-containing drinks. Good choices are sports drinks such as Gatorade

  • Sucking on popsicles made from juices and sports drinks

  • Sucking on ice chips


The foremost treatment for dehydration is prevention. Anticipate the need for increased fluid intake.

  • Plan ahead and take extra water to all outdoor events and work where increased sweating, activity, and heat stress will increase fluid losses. Encourage athletes and outdoor workers to replace fluids at a rate that equals the loss.

  • Avoid exercise and exposure during high heat index days. Listen to weather forecasts for high heat stress days, and plan events that must occur outside during times when temperatures are cooler.

  • Avoid alcohol consumption, especially when it is very warm, because alcohol increases water loss and impairs your ability to sense early signs associated with dehydration.

  • Wear light-colored and loose-fitting clothing if you must be outdoors when it is hot outside. Carry a personal fan or mister to cool yourself.


The information provided is for general interest only and should not be misconstrued as a diagnosis, prognosis or treatment recommendation. This information does not in any way constitute the practice of medicine, or any other health care profession. Readers are directed to consult their health care provider regarding their specific health situation. Marque Medical is not liable for any action taken by a reader based upon this information.

 

Common Summer Health Issues to Avoid by Your Marque Team

Health issues can get in the way of your summer fun and you don’t want that happening. Some common ailments are bed bugs, heat rash, food poisoning and swimmer’s ear. Here’s how to spot, treat and prevent these common problems, and what to do if they strike.

BED BUGS

The kids are out of school, so you take a vacation and stay at a hotel. So does EVERYONE else. The peak season for bed bugs is June through October. The increase in heat and humidity during the summer and early fall months has the effect of making bed bugs more active. Make sure you check the beds in the hotel rooms as well as your own beds at home just to be safe.

How to spot signs of bed bugs:

  • Look for rusty or reddish stains on bed sheets or mattresses caused by bed bugs being crushed.

  • Dark spots (about this size: •), which are bed bug excrement and may bleed on the fabric like a markbed_buger would.

  • Eggs and eggshells, which are tiny (about 1mm) and pale yellow skins that nymphs shed as they grow larger.

  • Live bed bugs.


 

Where bed bugs hide:

When not feeding, bed bugs hide in a variety of places. Around the bed, they can be found near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring, and in cracks on the bed frame and headboard.

Preventing bed bugs:

At home, try not storing your luggage under your bed. Ideally, luggage should be stored in a basement or garage. Other tips include decluttering your home, vacuuming more often and keeping belongings separate when taken to school or work.

HEAT RASH


With our high temperatures in Southern California, heat rash can be a very common, yet real concern. If you sweat enough, your sweat glands can actually get blocked, and the excess moisture can cause skin irritation, itching, and redness. The best way to prevent this from happening is by staying cool. Drink plenty of cool water, wear light clothing that breathes, and try to avoid staying in the sun for too long.  If you do see signs of heat rash, cool your body (in an air conditioned place or with a fan) or take a cool shower and let your body air dry.  Do not use any oil based lotions because you don’t want to block your sweat glands.  Heat rash should self-resolve within a few days.

FOOD POISONING


When food is left in the heat for an extended periods of time, bacteria grows. Food poisoning is more common during the summer because the microorganisms that cause it grow most quickly when the temperature is between 90 and 100 degrees. Nearly 300,000 people are hospitalized annually due to food poisoning.  Make sure your food stays in a cool place while on the beach or picnicking.  Use extra care to foods that contain mayonnaise, dairy, eggs or meat products.  Keep them cool because they can start to develop bacteria within several hours of being unrefrigerated.

Food poisoning symptoms:

Symptoms of food poisoning include upset stomach, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and dehydration. Symptoms may range from mild to severe.

SWIMMER'S EAR

Ear infections can be really painful and can keep you out of the pool and ocean. No one wants that during the summertime! It’s often caused by water remaining in the ear after you go swimming. This can create a moist environment inside the ear, which helps bacteria to grow. The best way to avoid swimmer’s ear is to avoid immersing your head entirely in the water, or if you do, do not go too deep. You can also try wearing earplugs. Do NOT use Q-tips or cotton swabs to clean your ears, this will make it worse. In most cases, a doctor will prescribe ear drops and be advised to keep the ear dry.

The information provided is for general interest only and should not be misconstrued as a diagnosis, prognosis or treatment recommendation. This information does not in any way constitute the practice of medicine, or any other health care profession. Readers are directed to consult their health care provider regarding their specific health situation. Marque Medical is not liable for any action taken by a reader based upon this information.

 

 

 

 

 

Pediatric Urgent Care: What’s Different? By Colleen Kraft, M.D.

We know that the relationship between pediatricians and families is special and unique. The pediatric medical home is the center for your child’s medical care from infancy to college. You child knows your pediatricians, the nurses, the office, even the books in the waiting room—all comforting when your child is ill.

But what happens when your pediatrician’s office is closed? Many offices have a pediatrician taking phone calls, but what if your child needs to be seen during an evening or weekend? That’s where pediatric urgent care is important. Pediatric urgent care is a friendly alternative to the emergency department for many illnesses and injuries that your child may face. But how do you

find the right urgent care for your children? Here are some tips:

  1. Find an urgent care with pediatric expertise. Are there pediatricians or pediatric nurses on staff? This is important—there are subtle differences between a child who is mildly ill and a child who may be seriously ill. Staff who can measure and recognize pediatric vital signs and know how to examine children are essential for a successful pediatric urgent care experience.

  2. Urgent care facilities serving children should be capable of providing timely assessment and stabilization to initiate transfer of pediatric patients who need a higher level of care. Ask if your local urgent care has the equipment and if staff have the training if your child has a need for expertise beyond the capability of their facility.

  3. Find an urgent care that will work with your pediatrician. Your child’s medical home is where all care is coordinated. If your pediatrician can communicate with a local urgent care about your child, and if records will be shared with your pediatrician, you’ve got a winner!

  4. Make sure the philosophy of the urgent care doctors is similar to your pediatrician’s. Your pediatrician will recommend the right care—symptomatic treatment and no antibiotics for viral illnesses, a good history and physical exam instead of a chest X-ray for common cough, not using over-the-counter cold medicines are examples of this.

  5. Look for child-friendly staff and environments. Are there books in the waiting room? Is the waiting room a safe place for your child to wait?

  6. Recognize the standard services that are appropriate to urgent care. These might include acute respiratory and febrile illnesses, minor laceration and burns, sprains and other injuries. Ask if your local urgent care has a standardized approach to these conditions, and if they follow guidelines set by the American Academy of Pediatrics or the Society for Pediatric Urgent Care.


Together, your pediatrician and pediatric urgent care can be a valuable team for your child and your family!

The information provided is for general interest only and should not be misconstrued as a diagnosis, prognosis or treatment recommendation. This information does not in any way constitute the practice of medicine, or any other health care profession. Readers are directed to consult their health care provider regarding their specific health situation. Marque Medical is not liable for any action taken by a reader based upon this information.

 

 

Healthy Eating by Jessica Medina



Did you know that 60% of American men and women are considered obese? This is a result of a lack of exercise and poor eating habits. Although exercise is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle, healthy eating is critical since your diet can greatly impact your life in a positive or negative way.

Healthy eating starts at home with the meals that we prep. Many people don’t care about what they’re putting in their mouth until they have a health issue like a condition such as diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or even cases as extreme as coronary artery disease. Most of these problems can be avoided by a healthier diet.

How can you eat healthier and what is considered healthy eating?  Natural, whole foods with minimal processing and added sugar are examples of healthy food choices. A diet filled with colorful fruits and vegetables has a plethora of health benefits- from lowering blood pressure, to helping your eyesight, or helping to fight different types of cancer.

Healthy eating also means knowing the difference between good fats and bad fats. You don’t want to load your body with bad, saturated fats. These types of fats are very common in foods that we love to eat such as fried foods and baked goods. Olive oil is an example of a good fat and one that is beneficial to your body.

Vegetables are proven to help provide your body with essential nutrients necessary for optimal functioning. People who have a diet high in vegetables are less likely to develop diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cancer, or heart disease. Veggies are also high in fiber, which is great to maintain regular bowel movements and relieve constipation. Fruits, beans, nuts, quinoa, and sweet potatoes are also healthy, delicious, high fiber food choices.

If you start making healthy food choices, you are taking steps to save not only your health, but also your bank account.  A healthy diet can cut on the cost of medical bills and insurance, and you’ll reduce your visits to the doctors.  Consume foods that are high in good fats, high in fiber, and high in health benefits.  Drink more water throughout the day because often we confuse thirst for hunger.

 

The information provided is for general interest only and should not be misconstrued as a diagnosis, prognosis or treatment recommendation. This information does not in any way constitute the practice of medicine, or any other health care profession. Readers are directed to consult their health care provider regarding their specific health situation. Marque Medical is not liable for any action taken by a reader based upon this information.

 

 

What to Know About Scoliosis by Alyssa Sota

Alyssa pulseWhat is scoliosis?

Scoliosis means that the spine curves somewhat from side to side rather than being straight down the back. The spine is made of bones called vertebrae that normally stack one on top of the other in a straight line. The bones in the upper back are called thoracic vertebrae. This is the most common place for scoliosis. The bones in the lower back are called lumbar vertebrae. Scoliosis develops gradually. It is usually noticed just before or during puberty when your child is going through a growth spurt. Girls get scoliosis more often than boys. Usually parents don’t notice the gradual changes caused by scoliosis. The curvature is usually discovered by a doctor or school nurse.

What is the cause?scoliosis

There are many causes of scoliosis. Sometimes vertebrae are incompletely formed or misshapen. Sometimes children who have legs of different lengths will develop a curvature of the spine. Other times, diseases cause scoliosis. However, in children and teens the cause is most often unknown. When a cause for the scoliosis cannot be found, it is called idiopathic scoliosis. In idiopathic scoliosis, some of the vertebrae are rotated. This causes the ribs on one side of the back to stick out more, causing a hump.

What are the symptoms?

At first, the symptoms are painless and not always easy to recognize. Someone with scoliosis may:

  • Have uneven shoulder or waist

  • Have a hump on one side of the back

  • Have one or both shoulder blades sticking out

  • Lean slightly to one side

  • Sometimes patients with scoliosis will have back pain


 

How is it treated?

Your provider will suggest the treatment based on your age, how much you are likely to grow, the degree and pattern of the curve and the type of scoliosis. You may be referred to a back specialist.

Source:

https://www.spine-health.com/conditions/scoliosis/scoliosis-what-you-need-know

https://www.clear-institute.org/learning-about-scoliosis/scoliosis-symptoms/?gclid=CJnVgomti9QCFRm2wAod9lcEDA

The information provided is for general interest only and should not be misconstrued as a diagnosis, prognosis or treatment recommendation. This information does not in any way constitute the practice of medicine, or any other health care profession. Readers are directed to consult their health care provider regarding their specific health situation. Marque Medical is not liable for any action taken by a reader based upon this information.

 

Do You Wear Makeup? Skin Care Tips 101 by Shay Mendoza

Shay webFor women of all ages, from preteen to those enjoying their retirement, we have all learned to deal with our flaws. Fortunately, we do have a tool that keeps those flaws hidden, MAKEUP! Applying make-up is a magical way for many women to have the appearance of smooth skin, nicely shaped lips, and perfect eyebrows, etc. In today’s generation, makeup is now being considered an “art”, not only are young women applying vibrant colors, concealer, foundation, blush in the cheek bones to give the facial structure perfect dynamics and glow, but so are young men.

Within the beauty of this talent, it does have risks. Proper skin care is a necessity to not only maintain a clean face, but to keep new problems from appearing, such as clogged pores, face discoloration, dry skin and acne.  Keeping a hydrated, oil-free and glowing natural skin isn’t a challenge, in fact it’s possible with the following cleansing tips:

An effective skin care regimen starts with a good cleanser.  When choosing a cleanser that’s right for your skin, always choose a gentler one, since harsh products can trigger the skin to produce more oil. For people with dry skin, select a product with no or few chemicals, perfumes or dyes. People with oily skin should choose a cleanser that will remove the oil without stripping the skin because that can cause production of even more oil. People with combination and normal skin can select a cleanser that is gentle depending on the climate and current skin needs. Ladies please note that regular facial cleansers can’t remove and break down waterproof makeup, so be sure to use a separate makeup remover especially for that makeup. It’s also very important to recognize that properly cleansing the skin prepares it to absorb products you may put on after like a serum or moisturizer.  Once you’re done thoroughly cleansing make sure to follow up with a moisturizer that best fits your skin type and needs. Even if you have oily skin, don’t skip this step! Oily skin doesn’t mean your skin is moisturized or hydrated.

Antioxidants, charcoal, and clay masks are helpful products that can be used before or after applying a new face of make-up. If you wear make-up daily, then a mask every 2-5 days would benefit you. If you wear make-up occasionally, then 1 mask per week would suffice. Using make-up removal wipes and cleaning the face afterwards is also another must.  Please note that regular facial cleansers can’t remove and break down waterproof makeup, so be sure to use a separate makeup remover especially for that makeup.

The most important way to keep not only your make-up looking beautiful and glowing, is to also maintain clean brushes and sponges. Cleaning your brushes and sponges in warm-hot water with a brush cleanser once a week is essential. There are so many ways to maintain good skin care from the basics such as soap and water, daily moisturizing, facial masks, hydrating lotions and more.  Sephora, Amazon, and DIY also give great tips and budgeting ways how to keep the beautiful faces of ours looking and staying healthy and clean.

The information provided is for general interest only and should not be misconstrued as a diagnosis, prognosis or treatment recommendation. This information does not in any way constitute the practice of medicine, or any other health care profession. Readers are directed to consult their health care provider regarding their specific health situation. Marque Medical is not liable for any action taken by a reader based upon this information.

 

Q. & A. with Bree Maloney – Nutrition

Question- What do you consider to be a healthy diet?

Answer- I consider a healthy diet to be a balance of fruits, veggies, grains, protein, fat and carbs. I say – everything in moderation. It’s not just about a healthy diet, it’s about developing healthy eating habits. You want to eat a variety of healthy foods. If you diet, day after day, consists of the same half dozen foods, you could fall short on some key nutrients your body needs. You also want to focus on high-fiber foods such as avocados, almonds, broccoli and lentils. Foods containing high fiber should supply about 20-35 grams of fiber a day, depending on your calorie needs. You do want to eat lots of produce. Remember to buy organic if you can to limit your exposure to any pesticides or toxic substances. Limit sugary foods, beverages and refined grains, which includes soda, candy, white bread, regular pasta and many snack and baked foods. A high intake of added sugar increases inflammation, risk of diabetes and insulin resistance in the body. And remember to drink alcohol in moderation if you do. Try and limit one drink a day for women and two for men. While alcohol has potential heart benefits, it poses a variety of health risks, especially in excess amounts.

Question- What are unhealthy ingredients on labels to avoid?

Answer- As a rule of thumb, I always try and eat things that don’t have a lot of ingredients in them. If I run my eye by an ingredient list and see a dozen names I can’t even pronounce, chances are it’s not good for you. Try aiming for foods that are minimally processed. Some ingredients to avoid and watch out for are: High-Fructose Corn Syrup, MSG, Partially Hydrogenated Oil, Sodium Nitrate, BHA, and BHT.

Question- What is MSG, and should I avoid it?

Answer- MSG or Monosodium Glutamate is the sodium salt of glutamic acid and is one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids. It’s basically a flavor enhancer commonly added to Chinese food, canned vegetables, soups and processed meats. Just like salt and sugar, MSG exists in nature, it tastes good at normal levels, but large amounts at high concentrations can do harm to you. MSG has been known to cause headaches and asthma.

Question- Can you please recommend healthy snacks?

Answer- I do recommend having some sort of snacks throughout the day. I tend to eat about 4-5 smaller meals a day and snacks are a big part of my diet. What my go-to snacks are raw almonds or any type of raw nuts, dried fruit such as raisins (golden raisins), apricots or crunch banana chips. Sometimes I’ll cut a few apples slices and put nut butter on them or some low-sodium beef or turkey jerky. I do have a recipe I like to make where I can make my own energy balls. They’re easy to make and contain almond butter, crushed dates, walnuts, cocoa and protein powder. I’ll sprinkle and roll them in coca nibs and coconut flakes. You can easily google an energy ball recipe, I highly recommend it!

Question- Is salt really that bad for you?

Answer- Again, everything in moderation. If you eat too much salt, the extra water stored in your body raises your blood pressure. So, the more salt you eat, the higher your blood pressure will be and with higher blood pressure comes to greater strain on your heart, arteries, kidneys and brain. I tend to choose foods that say ‘low-sodium’ or I check the nutrition label to see how much salt content is in what I want to eat. Some foods claim to be ‘low-sodium’ but then turn out to have a ton of salt! Though we do need salt/sodium to survive as our bodies rely on sodium for muscle contractions, nerve transmissions and the control systems for balancing body fluids, together with other electrolytes like potassium, you don’t want to have too much salt. Excessive sodium intake is one of the major factors contributing to stroke and heat attacks.

Question- If I want to get healthy, what are the basic first steps?

Answer- Start small and work your way up. You don’t suddenly want to cut salt, fat and carbs out of your diet like some people do. It’s not a long-term solution. Still reward yourself with some fat or sugar such as dark chocolate, but just don’t be excessive. What I did is simply substitute things. Instead of this type of cereal, I’ll choose a healthier option. Instead of whole milk, choose coconut or almond milk. Throw some chia seeds in your yogurt or add blueberries or kale to your smoothie. Remember to do what is going to work for you. There are tons of diets and fabs out there, but if you stick to reading nutrition labels and eating more whole foods than processed foods, that is a great start.

For many people eating healthy is a challenge, and to some a source of dread. But eating healthy should bring you joy and a centerpiece to your life. Like the things you eat and enjoy cooking and making meals with friends and family. Once you create good habits, then eating healthy won’t be a chore, it will become a lifestyle and something that’s easy to do.

The information provided is for general interest only and should not be misconstrued as a diagnosis, prognosis or treatment recommendation. This information does not in any way constitute the practice of medicine, or any other health care profession. Readers are directed to consult their health care provider regarding their specific health situation. Marque Medical is not liable for any action taken by a reader based upon this information.

 

 

 

 

Physical Therapy by Janell Pierce

janell lo resWhat is physical therapy?

Physical therapy is a treatment program that helps decrease your pain and restore your strength and range of motion.  Your health care provider may recommend physical therapy after an injury of surgery to help you fully recover.  Physical therapy is also used to teach people how to move properly to prevent injuries.

What is a physical therapist?

A physical therapist is a health care professional that is an expert in treating muscle and skeletal problems that affect your ability to move and function in daily life.  A physical therapist is trained in an accredited program.  They are required to be licensed in the state which they practice.

What can I expect from physical therapy?

Your first visit with the physical therapist he or she will exam you and ask you about your health history and any problems you are having. After the physical therapist takes down your health history, the therapist will do a series of tests and measures, such as range of motion and strength.  Once your problem has been identified, the therapist will discuss a care plan with you.  Your care plan may include frequent visits with a physical therapist for weeks or months until you have reached your treatment goals.

There are several types of treatments that a physical therapist may give you.  The treatments you have will depend on your problem or condition.  During your visit, your physical therapist my do the following:

physical therapyPhysical Treatments

  • Deep heating

  • Cold packs and ice massage

  • Whirlpools and water therapy

  • Hot packs and paraffin baths

  • Electrical muscle stimulation

  • Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS)

  • Massage

  • Movements that help your joints and soft tissues


 

How can I receive physical therapy?

In most cases, a medical provider such as a physician, physician’s assistant, or nurse practitioner refer you to physical therapy.  Make sure to check with your insurance company to determine the extent of coverage for physical therapy.

The information provided is for general interest only and should not be misconstrued as a diagnosis, prognosis or treatment recommendation. This information does not in any way constitute the practice of medicine, or any other health care profession. Readers are directed to consult their health care provider regarding their specific health situation. Marque Medical is not liable for any action taken by a reader based upon this information.